Assignment 5 – Business Ethics and Social Responsibility

Assignment 5

set: 13/10/2016             due:27/10/2016

Business Ethics and social responsibility

Select one of the topics below, and write 500 words discussing it. Post your answer to the comments section below, along with your student number and name.

 

  • The most important ethical issue in your country

 

  • Is child labour always wrong?

 

  • Should we protect whistleblowers?

 

  • unsafe working conditions and how to improve health and safety

 

  • Why is fair trade so important?

 

  • Ethical marketing, such as is it ok to market alcohol to teenage girls?

 

  • The effects of bribery and corruption in economic growth

 

  • Any other topic you feel is important in terms of business ethics and social repsonsilibilty
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35 thoughts on “Assignment 5 – Business Ethics and Social Responsibility

  1. -Fair Trade-
    Fair Trade Certified products alone positively impact the lives of the over one million Fair Trade farmers and their families, who are located in 58 countries. Fair Trade raises the standards of living for these families and offers a comprehensive development of their communities. It offers true change, and not charity.Fairly traded products affect millions and millions of producers providing them with more resources and control over their lives.
    Fairtrade is about better prices, decent working conditions, local sustainability, and fair terms of trade for farmers and workers in the developing world.
    The Fairtrade Foundations vision is of a world in which justice and sustainable development are at the heart of trade structures and practices so that everyone, through their work, can maintain a decent and dignified livelihood and develop their full potential.
    Fairtrade certification aims :
    Economic
    *Buyers are required to pay a stable Fairtrade minimum price calculated to cover the costs of sustainable production
    *Buyers are required to pay a Fairtrade premium to producer organisations for producer organisations to make livelihood investments and to improve the situation of local communities
    *Opportunity for pre-financing
    *Contracts that allow long-term planning
    *Increased access to export markets
    Social:
    For small farmers:
    *A non-discriminatory, democratic organisational structure that enables farmers to bring a product to the market
    *The organisation must be set up in a transparent way
    *It must not discriminate against any particular member or social group.
    For hired labour:
    *The company involved to bring social rights and security to its workers
    *Training opportunities
    *Non-discriminatory employment practices
    *No child or forced labour
    *Access to collective bargaining processes
    *Freedom of association
    *Conditions of employment exceeding legal minimum requirements
    *Adequate occupational safety and health conditions
    *Sufficient facilities for the workforce to manage the Fairtrade premium
    Environmental:
    *Fairtrade requires minimised and safe use of agrochemicals
    *Proper and safe management of waste
    *Maintenance of soil fertility and water resources
    *Prohibits use of genetically modified organisms
    *Requires organisations to assess their environmental impact and develop plans to mitigate it.

    Onur Kurt
    20111378

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  2. Is child labour always wrong..
    The thought of child labor makes me cringe.I envision children spending hours every day in repetitive (and sometimes dangerous) work – forced to earn an income to help the family survive, or, more horrifically, because they have no family and are working for their own survival or are the (property) of a ruthless (employer).
    The working conditions for many child laborers are entirely unsatisfactory and even inhumane. occasionally see on news reports when a factory collapses in Bangladesh or a fire rips through a garment factory in Pakistan. How is it possible for such conditions to exist in the 21st century?
    I think our understanding of what might be “harmful to the physical and mental development of children” is heavily influenced by our culture and specifically – in the western world – by our affluence and the way this has fundamentally altered our worldview.Children are expected to be in school, and, if they work, it’s in addition to their schooling, not in place of it. But it hasn’t always been so.Despite our very good intentions, the current rates of childhood obesity, diabetes and other physiological ailments as well as various psychological and behavioral disorders are alarming.
    Many of kids are growing up in hazardous social environments, where they are either victims or perpetrators of bullying of one form or another.I believe it with more and more conviction that children need to learn many things from their parents, grandparents, extended families, communities and churches. A secular society has its limits.The assumption that developing countries should learn from us and follow our example worries me because we often fail to recognize the problems resulting from our cultural norms.
    For me, the challenge is to find the elusive happy medium. We should advocate against the exploitation of children – by all means – but we should also advocate against conditions by which we mistakenly think we can keep our kids safe by protecting them from responsibility.As we advocate against the exploitation of child laborers, let’s also beware of dangers of another sort.

    Name : Tural Asgarov
    Student Number : 20121151
    Department : Tourism & Hotel Management

    Thanks for attention..

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  3. THE IMPORTANCE OF ETHICAL ISSUES IN NIGERIA
    Ethics is critical to every society because it plays a crucial position in shaping the individuals behaviours within a society. Since the dawn of human civilization, guys have sought to hold human behavior in test to keep the peace of society. Where in written law is used to manipulate legitimate organizations and happenings, ethics act as a self-governing system to preserve human self-interest and the coolest of society at equilibrium because the eyes of the regulation are not continually available and Nigeria isn’t always an exception.
    however, as with everything in existence, not anything is ideal. Ethics and human conduct are not any exception to this rule. Ethics of the old days has been polluted and are insufficient for enterprise self-governance due to modifications within the surroundings and cultural norms. In other words, ethics in cutting-edge society has eroded. As noted via (Gino & Bazerman, 2008), managers and leaders in modern companies lack robust ethical requirements (Andrews, 1989; Longnecker, 1985; Molander, 1987; Pit t& Abratt, 1986) or are willing to abandon them in the face of economic incentives or aggressive pressures (Gellerman, 1986; Hosmer, 1987). humans have continually been notion of as egocentric creatures, and this just similarly proves it. Colleagues bad mouthing every different in the back of their backs to growth probabilities of advertising shows a loss of professional ethics so as to advantage monetary gain can be visible as unethical, however logical. unfortunately, a few acts which includes littering the streets and the usage of the mobile telephone in a cinema despite being informed again and again no longer to do so, is not just unethical, it is downright absurd.
    but, erosion of ethics isn’t just restricted to the business global. It has spilled over to each thing of society, which include athletes cheating or taking capsules, and the previously exceptional bribing of Olympics organizing choice committee (Cordeiro, 2003). There are very severe affects to the society if the erosion of ethics is not saved in check. the public, whether or not it’s far commercial enterprise, friendship or any kind of interplay, features due to the fact people depend upon a various degree of accept as true with, recognize for others, and cooperation (Cordeiro, 2003). If erosion of ethics continues to worsen, no person could have any consider in others, in any respect. in the end, society will quit to feature find it irresistible currently does and each person will either lock themselves at home, or stroll around heavily armed.
    unluckily, it is not simply the real erosion of ethics, however the humans’s belief of the erosion that has to be addressed as well. As mentioned in Cordeiro (2003), Morgan (1993) states that human beings are judgmental and could pick out not to commit to any sports when they understand that the other parties are unethical.ethical norms are ever changing due to the fact it’s miles contextual and suffering from tradition, era, religion and politics. What is ethical in a single USA might not be moral in every other. This just makes the evaluation of what is moral and what is not, an excellent greater tough query to answer than it presently already is. however, this doesn’t mean that the arena must simply give up and give up. There are approaches to at least draw the bounds of what is appropriate and what isn’t.
    it might appear that one of the more logical solutions to this hassle could be to exercise an ethical machine based on not unusual sense and purpose, in place of spiritual dogma or punitive legislation (Verschoor, 2001). however, this will in all likelihood paintings on males and females who subscribe to purpose and common sense handiest. however, with every person in society looking for to maximize every possibility to be had, the very idea may also backfire, for whilst the cause is self-advantage, and ethics no longer written in black and white, it’s far by no means clean to say what’s proper, and what is incorrect.To the average Nigerian there was no doubt that the “Change” campaign has yielded successful results. It seems therefore that the country is poised for a “Change” to a “new” Nigeria. However, for this expected change to succeed, will involve many factors starting with “Change” of our national attitudes to many things including, politics, economic, and governance to mention a few.

    The change agenda therefore, must transit to a change “philosophy” and a “doctrine” of the “Change” Administration of President Muhammadu Buhari. What both the philosophical and doctrinal change phenomenon will achieve range from the national character to the overall national politics and economic objectives as well as national ethics, morals, and values. The serious challenges facing our country are well known and frequently reported and commented upon in our media and public statements. The problem is that our political leaders and governments at all levels are living in denial of the seriousness of the crisis in which our country is currently involved. We have the raging violence and insecurity across the country, particularly in the North East. We have the challenges of rapid economic development and the challenges of reforming or restructuring the political system.

    However, the challenges we face in nation-building and national development are not unique to us. Other countries faced them, overcame and succeeded to attain their goal as great nations. In those countries, the leaders were able to resolve their historical national or sub-national or ethnoreligious rivalries and turned their diversities and dynamic disintegrative tendencies into instruments of national unity and progress. Some historical courageous leaders who performed these feats in recent history include, Mustafa Kamal Ataturk of Turkey, Charles De Gaulle of France, Sukarno of Indonesia, Lee Qua Yew of Singapore and Mahthi Mohammed of Malaysia to mention a few. Nigeria too can produce such leaders. And that will happen if our leadership selection process will be based on capability, knowledge, and genuine patriotism, not on the basis of Region, Religion, or ethnicity. Nigerian leaders face a similar historic challenge, as those mentioned above, and today history beckons President Buhari, Nigeria, certainly can change, and must change to survive. There are historical precedents. However, for Nigeria to “Change” and Nigerians to accept the “Change” agenda, certain Moral and Ethical Imperatives are essential and inevitable.

    Nigerians have to go through both spiritual revivalism and the nation itself must go through moral re-armament. The crisis in Nigeria is predominantly a moral one. Some scholars believe “moral recovery creates not crisis but confidence and unity in every phase of life”. And that “moral recovery is essentially the forerunner of economic recovery”. It is clear now in Nigeria that suspicion, rivalries, apathy, mutual hostility and greed lie behind the bottlenecks that have impeded all efforts towards our national unity and progress. Moral values based on the concept of right and wrong should supplant rivalries, envy and other negative competitions with emphasis on the “permanent struggle between good and evil”. Hence, a well-designed doctrine of ethics and morals for a new Nigeria has become inevitable.

    To triumph over the demanding situations of unethical behaviour, implement ethical standards among the people as a way of lifestyles in enterprise and government transactions, the following hints are put forward: First, the Nigerian government need to inculcate into its citizens, the want to imbibe PES and behaviour as a manner of life both in public and personal zone of the country‟s economy. this will be carried out through public enlightenment marketing campaign approximately the ills of unethical behavior as a method of reaching personal or collective dreams of the united states of America. 2nd, the authorities need to find the need to impose stiffer penalty on the ones determined to be worried in an unethical behavior, irrespective of their role or reputation within the US , which could function deterrent to others. A law need to be put in place so one can permit regulation enforcement retailers to dig deep into humans‟s sources of wealth and if observed to be received illegally such wealth must be forfeited to the authorities. third, the law on freedom of statistics surpassed these days with the aid of the Nigerian country wide assembly need to be bolstered to make it obligatory for all authorities officers to disclose their property openly instead of the present day machine wherein the Code of behavior Bureau maintains such information on property declared through public officers secret. On this manner, individuals who may additionally have information about underneath-declared or undisclosed assets of public officers can volunteer such information to law enforcement marketers for verification and prosecution if discovered to be accurate.
    In the end, the legal guidelines organizing the various ethical standards regulatory organizations in Nigeria need to be reviewed to make these structures clearly unbiased of the government both in terms of appointments, merchandising or funding to avoid compromise. once the headship of these ethical standards regulatory businesses have the backing of the law that they can’t be removed from workplace at will with the aid of the authorities of the day, they may be much more likely to be critical inside the combat against unethical behavior each in enterprise and in authorities.
    Name: Linus Ndukwe
    Student No: 20125012
    Dept: HRM

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  4. Is child labor always wrong?
    Child labour refers to employment of children who work to make money in any type of work which inhibits the children from attending to school regularly and defeat a right of being as other children, playing and resting. Also children’s dignity and self esteem can be damaged. This practice is considered as exploitative by many international organizations and always tried to eliminate by applying programs such as International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC). The International Labor Organization estimates that there are 215 million children among age of 5–17 currently work under conditions that are considered dangerous, illegal, or extremely exploitative. Again it shows us that about 114 million (53%) are in Asia and the Pacific; 14 million (7%) live in Latin America; and 65 million (30%) live in sub-Saharan Africa. Generally there are child labours in almost every country.
    However there is a big difference between working after school in a safe place such as store and carrying rocks or selling tissue under the harmful lights (rays) of sun. This is also the difference between child work and child labour. Some working in the childhood can add some important skills to the children. Such as working part-time, after school in a family firm or any job that is not harmful for children. They can learn how hard the money earning is, and it helps to improve their practical skills and accustom themselves to work. So this can be instructive for the children. Otherwise this will be exploitation.
    Also children might be not aware of their rights and the employers can benefit from or exploit it in such a way that paying less than normal or involve children in illegal activities such as prostitution, children slavery, trafficking and exposing them to hazardous works. Children in commercial agriculture can work long hours in extreme temperatures under sun, with health risks from pesticides, and improper food, water, and sanitation. Only after reaching 18, adult employment rights and rules apply. Many children are also involved in manufacturing sector such as carpeting, clothing, making fireworks, glass and bricks and etc. Child labours become very ill and injure themselves due to the working in underground mines, opencast mines, and quarries or during working with dangerous machines. A lot of children, especially girls, work in domestic services, sometimes as young as 5 or 6 years-old. This type of child labor is related to child trafficking, and domestic child labour can be victims of physical, emotional, and sometimes sexual abuse.
    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child says that every child under 18 had the right to education, play, rest, and protection from child labour. That means legislation around the world prohibits child labour. But sometimes this is difficult for the governments to control and stop all of these processes.
    In my opinion children are our tomorrows, so we must protect and maintain them as much as possible and it would be fair if children, who have a very poor family, suffer from starvation and must work to gain some extra money, and then he or she can work in a comfortable place under government control, 1 or 2 hours, after school without missing their childhood rights such as playing and laughing.

    Instructor: Dr. Karen E. Howells
    Student Name: Günay İmanova
    Student Number: 20130745
    Department: Business Administration

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  5. The most important ethical issue in your country?

    In Turkey, the most important ethical issues of discrimination and ill-gotten gains

    for example, in a survey conducted by the research company xside. including managers of large companies with participation of 84 % of executives in business ethics violation cases also reveal that the encounter. Administrators, most government departments with a proposal unethical %53, local governments %49 and suppliers %48 says that common. %55 percent of executives surveyed stated that corruption is the most important ethical problems they see in Turkish society, 45.5 % of this problem “rent” is defined as. while 39.6 %of the perception of ethical issues constitute bribery. Ethical values that the Turkish youth care; To be fair, honesty, equality, respect for the individual, respect for the environment, transparency, morality of opportunity.

    Company executives voicing grows decrease of ethical concepts, also he said that corruption is the most important ethical issues. stating that the proposal unethical encountered in most government offices with 53 percent of executives, 49 percent of local governments, and suppliers that follow in this regard also emphasizes government departments with 48 percent.

    The most common unethical behavior in the turkey; discrimination, bribery, intimidation and the exploitation

    Discrimination: Discrimination against people with prejudiced attitudes davranmaktır.b group, is defined as any behavior in a way that unjust discrimination and harm.

    Bribery: money public officials, property, interests in a number of material as a gift to the person or group that provides it with privileged interests in return for providing a public process described as bribery.

    Many managers for various reasons, be given a gift of a different nature is considered to be a requirement of the Turkish society and the Turkish bureaucratic culture emerges as a behavior.

    Exploitation: İs unjust use of the human or object. And it is intended to provide interest.

    There are various types of exploitation;

    • Exploiters, exploited people can force or trick you can use.

    • 2- Exploited people may voluntarily consent to the action.

    • 3. The purpose of the exploited people, to safeguard the interests and ensure profits.

    The most important ethical issues in Turkey are listed as follows;
    • Discrimination
    • dishonest gain
    • Deceptive Advertising
    • Corruption
    • Bribery

    Is child labour always wrong?

    In Turkey, Child labor is seen as a serious problem in terms of human development. Statistics employees of the right to education of children reveals significant in that usurped. To work one out of every five children in the world were exposed to these children in a healthy environment and also deprived of fundamental freedoms, physical, social, cultural, emotional and educational development operated in conditions that damage. In this process, child labor continues to create the most exploited sector workers as free or cheap labor.

    Children working as paid or casual;

    %3.4 lived through injury and injury
    %34 are overtired
    3 not given one meal in the workplace
    No weekly consent of %36
    There is no annual paid leave for %89
    The proportion of workers for vocational education is %21.7

    Child labor often prevents children from living his childhood which diminishes their potential and dignity is harmful in terms of physical and mental development works. The most extreme forms of thought child labor, children are enslaved, family distinguishes, with them a serious threat, are faced with the disease, reducing the state will take care of themselves very young in the big cities of the streets. Certain work forms of child labor will not be counted and counted the child’s age, type of work and the time it takes, the circumstances in which it occurred, and the country depends on the objectives that they act in this area. Therefore, both from country to country as well as the response varies from sector to sector in a particular country.

    Instructor: Dr. Karen E. Howells
    Name : Recep Gündöner
    Student Number : 20122072
    Department : Tourism & Hotel Management

    Thanks for attention..

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  6. Unsafe working conditions and how to improve health and safety
    Working conditions are affected by factors including health and safety, security and working hours. Poor working conditions can damage your health and put your safety at risk.
    Working conditions covers areas such as space,temperature,cleanliness and lighting, ventilation, humidity and welfare facilities, including access to drinking water. Employer is legally responsible for ensuring good working conditions, but you also have a responsibility to work safely .
    Health and safety
    Inadequate safety and health standards are particularly evident in the case of the informal sector. Informal sector’s workers do not have the necessary awareness,technical means and resources to implement health and safety measures. The protection of the health and welfare of workers in the informal sector is a challenge which should be faced with an integrated approach to health promotion, social protection and employment creation.
    The Workplace Health, Safety and Welfare Regulations – which became law in 1993 – lay down minimum standards for workplaces and work in or near buildings.These regulations apply to most types of workplace except transport, construction sites and domestic premises. Workplaces must be suitable for all who work in them, including workers with any kind of disability.You have the right to a safe and healthy workplace which is suitable for all who work in or visit them. This means that your employer must look at issues such as space, cleanliness, lighting and ventilation and adequate toilet, washing and changing facilities. Workplace dangers are not always obvious but paying attention to these issues and those related to areas such as emergency lighting, suitable floors, safe traffic routes, windows and doors will help to achieve this.Working practices and conditions that seem harmless can eventually lead to serious illness.
    UNISON safety representatives can help ensure that your working environment is healthy and safe:
    investigate problems;
    inspect your workplace;
    raise health and safety issues with your employer.
    They also have the right to be consulted on any health and safety measures which might substantially affect their members.
    Next steps for UNISON reps
    Find out how to work with employers to come to agreements on health and safety issues.
    Carry out a health and safety inspection at least four times a year.
    Talk to members about any concerns they have in relation to the workplace and raise these with your employer.
    Working conditions covers areas such as space, temperature, lighting, ventilation, humidity and welfare facilities, including access to drinking water.
    Your employer must ensure that your workplace comply with the Workplace Health, Safety and Welfare Regulations.
    Your UNISON rep can help if your employer is not doing what they should.

    Thank you.

    Madina Sadikova
    20131544
    Business Administration

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  7. Unsafe working conditions and how to improve health and safety
    Economically active people spend on an average about one third of their time at the workplace. Employment and working conditions have powerful effects on health equity. Today’s workplace is faced with rapid development and accelerating changes in technology. Economic and social developments are also changing the daily life of both blue and white collar worker. Improvements are expected but the conditions of work and the working environment of many workers still remain arduous. Also these changes give rise to new problems. Therefore in many countries the amount of accidents and health problems of workers are increasing.
    As an employer, it is your responsibility to maintain a safe and healthy workplace. A safety and health management system, or safety program, can help you focus your efforts at improving your work environment. Whatever you call it, your plan describes what the people in your organization do to prevent injuries and illnesses at your workplace.
    The material covers safety, health and working conditions readings and discussion topics:
    – Training for safety, health and working conditions;
    – People, safety, health and technical equipment;
    – Workplace climate, lighting and noise;
    – Chemical risks to health;
    – Ergonomics: fitting work to man;
    – Work organisation and working time;
    – Daily activity for safety, health and wellbeing.
    As an employer, you must identify hazards in your workplace and take steps to eliminate or minimize them. Develop a safety plan. Tell your employees what you will do to ensure their safety and what you expect from them. Make sure your employees have access to a first aid kit. Regularly check all equipment and tools to ensure that they are well maintained and safe to use. Also check storage areas and review safe work procedures. Provide written instructions and safe work procedures so they can check for themselves if they are unsure of a task or have forgotten part of their training. Meet regularly with your staff and discuss health and safety issues. Encourage them to share their ideas and thoughts on how to improve safety in the workplace.
    AIDS at the workplace is an important issue and the human resource department needs to take measures to curb severe friction among work groups or irrational actions from frightened employees that may arise as a result of HIV and AIDS cases.
    If employer always control the work conditions its not become a unsafety conditions. Main task is employer to how control and lead about departments and workers.

    Selma Uzun
    20130463
    Business Administration

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  8. Why is Fair Trade so Important?
    Firstly, I want to explain Fair Trade. Fair trade is a social movement of which specified goal is to help producers in developing countries achieve better trading conditions and to promote sustainability.

    Fair-trade is very important because it’s about better prices, well working conditions and fair terms of trade for farmers and workers. It’s about supporting the development of thriving farming and worker communities that have more control over their futures and protecting the environment in which they live and work. And it’s your opportunity to connect with the people who grow the product that we all depend on.
    This is for certain products, such as coffee, cocoa, cotton rice, tea and sugar .This products are very light because all products are dried and tend to have a long shelf life .These product features, Transport of the products produced up to countries where they are not harmful to the environment.
    Workplaces have high security for individuals. They are not working children (no child labor). There are over 1.65 million farmers and workers in 1,226 producer organizations and spread across more than 74 countries participating in Fair-trade. The farmers and workers themselves decide how the Fair-trade Premium should be invested. The premium is the additional sum of money paid on top of the Fair-trade minimum price that farmers and workers receive which can be invested in social, environmental and economic developmental projects to improve their businesses and their communities. In real terms, it means investment in schools, transport, health care, sanitation, an improved environment and better business equipment and practices.
    For example;
    Edgar and Blanca Vegas Sanchez are farmers in the Monte Verde Mountains in Costa Rica. It had economic fluctuation in 1980 so they lived a very difficult period. When the world price was high, they decided to start growing coffee to make a little extra money. It takes three years before a new coffee plant can produce its first berries and during this time Mr Vegas Sanchez joined local cooperative, Co-op el Dos. By the time the first harvest was ready, the price had plunged to an all-time low. They had been selling in the open market, they would have made a loss on the crop – and been unable to pay off their investment in the coffee plants. But Co-op el Dos sells the majority of its beans to the fair trade market in Europe, which guarantees a minimum price for the product thus ensuring they were protected from five years of low prices. Because Fair trade firms always protect the rights of the producers. The members of cooperative did not affected by the negative fluctuations in the prices. The support given to the Fair trade has saved the thousands lives of the people.
    Sundus Bassin
    20120659
    Business Administration

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  9. The effects of bribery and corruption in economic growth
    Corruption and bribery are not victimless crimes. They hit the poorest people hardest and undermines economic development
    No country is immune from corruption. It flourishes where the criminal justice system and governance are weak, where decision-making is unaccountable and access to decision-makers is dependent on restricted social networks, where pay is low and where management controls are weak.
    Poor people are the worst affected by corruption
    The World Bank notes that the poor suffer the most from the petty corruption for the provision of public services: Empirical analysis has shown that the poor pay a higher share of their income on bribes than the rich An IMF study shows that an increase of just 0.78 per cent in corruption reduces the income growth of the poorest 20 per cent of the people in a country by 7.8 per cent a year. The Final Communiqué from the 2006 G8 St. Petersburg Summit is clear: The net effect of corruption is felt most directly, and disproportionately, by the poor.
    Corruption diverts expenditure away from health, education and the maintenance of infrastructure to high ‘kickback’ areas such as new construction and defence
    The World Bank points out that while this corruption hurts society in general, it hurts the poor most since they are more vulnerable and dependent on the quality of governance and state support.
    Corruption creates incentives for investment in capital-intensive projects at the expense of labour-intensive industries, which traditionally employ poorer people
    Corruption reduces a government’s tax revenue by as much as half, thereby reducing income available for reducing poverty
    Corruption increases the cost of projects
    In the construction industry, project costs typically increase by more than 25 per cent as a result of corruption. Similar mark-ups have been reported in the defence and finance sectors.
    Overall corruption-related losses can total more than a country’s foreign debt.
    Overpriced and poorly planned projects increase unsustainable nation debt. When countries cannot keep up with the debt repayments, cuts in public services fall disproportionately on poorer people
    Corruption deprives countries of finance for development
    The impacts of corruption on investment and economic growth are complex.
    Multilateral Development Banks estimate that some $400 billion has been looted from African states and stashed in foreign bank accounts, around $140 billion from Nigeria alone. The African Unions estimates the $148 billion a year leaves the continent because of corruption, and 80-90 per cent of the illicit overflows never return to the continent. Between $20-40 billion of corrupt money is estimated to flow from transition and developing countries into Western banks annually.
    Improved governance benefits poorer people
    The World Bank states that:
    countries that improve on control of corruption and rule of law can expect (on average), in the long run, a four-fold increase in incomes per capita. Thus, a country with an income per capita of US $ 2,000 could expect to attain US $ 8,000 in the long run by making strides to control corruption. Similarly, such a country could expect, on average, a 75% reduction in child mortality

    Alina Trifonoglo
    20135550
    Business Administration

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  10. Fair Trade

    The Reality – An Unfair World
    Today we will drink 8 and a half million cups of coffee in the UK!
    How much of what you pay goes to the farmer? On average small coffee farmers receive just 1.5 pence from a cappuccino that costs the consumer £1.75 here.
    Today 24,000 children will needlessly die across the world. The silent killers are poverty, hunger, easily preventable diseases, illnesses, and other related causes. In spite of the scale of this ongoing tragedy, it rarely manages to achieve, much less sustain, prime-time, headline coverage.
    Trade is an essential component to changing the lives of the poorest people for the better. Current trade often works with profit prioritised at the expense of vulnerable people. Fair Trade as a growing global phenomenon which puts people before profit. The principles of fair trade include a living wage, environmental sustainability and social justice.
    The Response – The Fair Trade Movement
    In 2010 Global fairtrade sales reached exceeded £3 billion which helps relieve poverty for over 7 million producers and their families
    Since its launch in 1994, the FAIRTRADE Mark has become established as a credible, independent consumer guarantee for products that help producers in developing countries get a better deal from international trade In less than fifteen years Fairtrade has become one of Britain’s most extraordinary social change success stories
    It has forged a unique alliance for change between millions of producers in poor countries and consumers in rich countries. It has provided a living model of trade that works through the conventional market – and yet challenges its unfair rules
    Fairtrade has become such a powerful symbol, that to ignore the cause, is to ignore the potential for increased sales, as well as increased public awareness and participation
    Today there are over 4,500 Fairtrade certified products, 1,000 Fairtrade Towns, more than 3,000 registered Fairtrade Schools, 100 Fairtrade Universities and Colleges, and over 5,000 Fairtrade faith groups.

    Name: Elchin Huseynov
    Student Number: 20112026
    Department: Tourism & Hotel Management

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  11. I want freedom not only for me but for us. So that is the reason why is I choosed my subject, which is the whistleblowers. I can describe a little bit about who is the whistleblowers? A person who reveal information blow the whistle to the involved authorities or to the media. A person informs about a situation, which is illegal to an intelligence or authorities. They do this kind of things for personal reason, take some gain or for the people and maybe for humanity. They are responsible to find some solution for truth & justice and also help businesses prevent and detect bribery ( is a crime in most countries of the world, including the US.) in commercial transactions. Whistleblowers are comfortable but not like a agent here cannot be management without whistleblowers for the continuity of the state. In business who report wrongdoings maybe subject to damaging such as harassment, dismissal or violence by their colleagues or superiors. It also helps businesses avoid and define bribery in commercial transactions. I think nobody is whistleblower in our life. Let’s give an example in this situation: while we drive a car wrongly, then someone calls a police or illegal workplace safety practices. So it’s like as a disclosure to these kind of events. In many countries, whistleblower is related with treachery & spying. Whistleblower protection is essential to encourage the reporting of misbehavior, fraud & corruption. Whistleblower protection is thus necessary to protect the public interest, public accountability and integrity. There was no law about whistleblowers and they were punished before. This is both good and bad news. Because in our world, somebody using abuse of power or commits a crime and these people was not punished. For example: In dictator countries, some people were doing but we did not seen. For this reason, In 2011, an Act to establish a mechanism to receive complaints relating to reveal on any allegation of corruption or willful misuse of power or willful misuse of discretion against any public servant. But this law was not remain stable. It is still developing in most countries. Also we can say to encourage the fight against corruption. When they notice illegal activities, this law have been developed to protect whistleblowers from damaging and to encourage the future whistleblowers to speak out.
    Finally, Think of business, if you are an employee, who has reported unethical behavior of law by your employer, believe that you have suffered because of that reporting, you must speak and discuss your options and protect your legal rights as a whistleblower.

    Bahar BEYAZ
    20120230
    Business Administration
    Dr. Karen E. Howells

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  12. Fair trade is a social movement whose stated goal is to help producers in developing countries achieve better trading conditions and to promote sustainability. Members of the movement advocate the payment of higher prices to exporters, as well as improved social and environmental standards. The movement focuses in particular on commodities, or products which are typically exported from developing countries to developed countries, but also consumed in domestic markets (e.g. Brazil, India and Bangladesh) most notably handicrafts, coffee, cocoa, wine,fresh fruit, chocolate, flowers and gold. The movement seeks to promote greater equity in international trading partnerships through dialogue, transparency, and respect. It promotes sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers in developing countries. Fair trade is grounded in three core beliefs; first, producers have the power to express unity with consumers. Secondly, the world trade practices that currently exist promote the unequal distribution of wealth between nations. Lastly, buying products from producers in developing countries at a fair price is a more efficient way of promoting sustainable development than traditional charity and aid.There are a large number of fair trade and ethical marketing organizations employing different marketing strategies.Most fair trade marketers believe it is necessary to sell the products through supermarkets to get a sufficient volume of trade to affect the developing world.The Fairtrade brand is by far the biggest of the fair trade coffee brands Packers in developed countries pay a fee to The Fairtrade Foundation for the right to use the brand and logo, and nearly all the fee goes to marketing. Packers and retailers can charge as much as they want for the coffee. The coffee has to come from a certified fair trade cooperative, and there is a minimum price when the world market is oversupplied. Additionally, the cooperatives are paid an additional 10c per lb premium by buyers for community development projects. The cooperatives can, on average, sell only a third of their output as fair trade, because of lack of demand, and sell the rest at world prices.The exporting cooperative can spend the money in several ways. Some go to meeting the costs of conformity and certification: as they have to meet fair trade standards on all their produce, they have to recover the costs from a small part of their turnover, sometimes as little as and may not make any profit. Some meet other costs. Some is spent on social projects such as building schools, health clinics and baseball pitches. Sometimes there is money left over for the farmers. The cooperatives sometimes pay farmers a higher price than farmers do, sometimes less, but there is no evidence on which is more common.The marketing system for fair trade and non-fair trade coffee is identical in the consuming countries, using mostly the same importing, packing, distributing and retailing firms. Some independent brands operate a “virtual company”, paying importers, packers and distributors and advertising agencies to handle their brand, for cost reasons. In the producing country, fair trade is marketed only by fair trade cooperatives, while other coffee is marketed by fair trade cooperatives (as uncertified coffee), by other cooperatives and by ordinary traders.To become certified fair trade producers, the primary cooperative and its member farmers must operate to certain political standards, imposed from Europe. FLO-CERT, the for-profit side, handles producer certification, inspecting and certifying producer organizations in more than 50 countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In the fair trade debate there are many complaints of failure to enforce these standards, with producers, cooperatives, importers and packers profiting.There remain many fair trade organizations that adhere to a greater or smaller degree to the original objectives of fair trade, and that market products through alternative channels where possible, and market through specialist fair trade shops, but they have a small proportion of the total market.

    Bircan Atakoğlu
    20110129

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  13. Is child labour always wrong.
    Nowadays, 215 million children work full-time throughout the world. These children do not go to school and have no time to play. Also they very often do not receive proper nutrition or care. They live the life of an adult and have their childhood taken away. A vast majority of them work in hazardous environments, are slave, or are involved in drug trafficking and prostitution. The article discusses the case of Jean-Claude Toviave a tennis pro who was accused of bringing four children from Africa and forcing them to work as slave in his Michigan house. He was accused of beating and forcing the children to clean the house. He was physically torturing, beating and starving the kids. His verbal and physical assaults, worked the four victims close to death. Is children slavery or child labour acceptable in our society?
    According to American life-styles, children should be at school and play. In my opinion Children have the right to education. Child labor and child slavery destroys the innocence of the young kids, and it must be stopped. It takes away the life of children to serves to an end. It is taking someone’s life as a mean to an end which is morally wrong. Children should not have their childhood taken away. It is the parent responsibility to ensure that a children access to education, and to ensure the family has a good quality of life. It is not the children duty to meet the needs of the family; it is the parents’ responsibility. The children responsibility is to study in order to purchase a great career and then later on support financially the family needs. Education is therefore an investment for low income families. Very often child labour leads to corruption, child abuse, human trafficking and slavery. I think child slavery is wrong and it is disgusting that Jean-Claude Toviave enslave kids in a society where child abuse is not permitted. It may be right to him according to his tradition to abuse children however, he has to respond to the laws which clearly state that it is wrong to abuse of children. For that specific case he deserves punishment because what he did to the kids is totally wrong.
    However, there are third World nations where the economy is such that families need their children to work to supplement their incomes. Child Labor exists, and in some places makes the difference and helps decrease poverty rate or just helps poor families to survive. But it is a fact that child labor brings corruption, using children to hold down the cost of wages.
    Child labor may have a place in the world economy, as long as it is not hazardous or dead-end work. Child laborers can still get an education and therefore help get their families out of poverty, since an education will ensure better-paying jobs in the long run. Child labor is not always a matter of child exploitation.
    Name : Musa Nacafov
    Student Number : 20102228
    Department : Tourism & Hotel Management

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  14. Is child labour always wrong.
    Nowadays, 215 million children work full-time throughout the world. These children do not go to school and have no time to play. Also they very often do not receive proper nutrition or care. They live the life of an adult and have their childhood taken away. A vast majority of them work in hazardous environments, are slave, or are involved in drug trafficking and prostitution. The article discusses the case of Jean-Claude Toviave a tennis pro who was accused of bringing four children from Africa and forcing them to work as slave in his Michigan house. He was accused of beating and forcing the children to clean the house. He was physically torturing, beating and starving the kids. His verbal and physical assaults, worked the four victims close to death. Is children slavery or child labour acceptable in our society?
    According to American life-styles, children should be at school and play. In my opinion Children have the right to education. Child labor and child slavery destroys the innocence of the young kids, and it must be stopped. It takes away the life of children to serves to an end. It is taking someone’s life as a mean to an end which is morally wrong. Children should not have their childhood taken away. It is the parent responsibility to ensure that a children access to education, and to ensure the family has a good quality of life. It is not the children duty to meet the needs of the family; it is the parents’ responsibility. The children responsibility is to study in order to purchase a great career and then later on support financially the family needs. Education is therefore an investment for low income families. Very often child labour leads to corruption, child abuse, human trafficking and slavery. I think child slavery is wrong and it is disgusting that Jean-Claude Toviave enslave kids in a society where child abuse is not permitted. It may be right to him according to his tradition to abuse children however, he has to respond to the laws which clearly state that it is wrong to abuse of children. For that specific case he deserves punishment because what he did to the kids is totally wrong.
    However, there are third World nations where the economy is such that families need their children to work to supplement their incomes. Child Labor exists, and in some places makes the difference and helps decrease poverty rate or just helps poor families to survive. But it is a fact that child labor brings corruption, using children to hold down the cost of wages.
    Child labor may have a place in the world economy, as long as it is not hazardous or dead-end work. Child laborers can still get an education and therefore help get their families out of poverty, since an education will ensure better-paying jobs in the long run. Child labor is not always a matter of child exploitation.
    Name : Musa Nacafov
    Student Number : 20102228
    Department : Tourism & Hotel Management

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  15. Is child labour always wrong.
    Nowadays, 215 million children work full-time throughout the world. These children do not go to school and have no time to play. Also they very often do not receive proper nutrition or care. They live the life of an adult and have their childhood taken away. A vast majority of them work in hazardous environments, are slave, or are involved in drug trafficking and prostitution. The article discusses the case of Jean-Claude Toviave a tennis pro who was accused of bringing four children from Africa and forcing them to work as slave in his Michigan house. He was accused of beating and forcing the children to clean the house. He was physically torturing, beating and starving the kids. His verbal and physical assaults, worked the four victims close to death. Is children slavery or child labour acceptable in our society?
    According to American life-styles, children should be at school and play. In my opinion Children have the right to education. Child labor and child slavery destroys the innocence of the young kids, and it must be stopped. It takes away the life of children to serves to an end. It is taking someone’s life as a mean to an end which is morally wrong. Children should not have their childhood taken away. It is the parent responsibility to ensure that a children access to education, and to ensure the family has a good quality of life. It is not the children duty to meet the needs of the family; it is the parents’ responsibility. The children responsibility is to study in order to purchase a great career and then later on support financially the family needs. Education is therefore an investment for low income families. Very often child labour leads to corruption, child abuse, human trafficking and slavery. I think child slavery is wrong and it is disgusting that Jean-Claude Toviave enslave kids in a society where child abuse is not permitted. It may be right to him according to his tradition to abuse children however, he has to respond to the laws which clearly state that it is wrong to abuse of children. For that specific case he deserves punishment because what he did to the kids is totally wrong.
    However, there are third World nations where the economy is such that families need their children to work to supplement their incomes. Child Labor exists, and in some places makes the difference and helps decrease poverty rate or just helps poor families to survive. But it is a fact that child labor brings corruption, using children to hold down the cost of wages.
    Child labor may have a place in the world economy, as long as it is not hazardous or dead-end work. Child laborers can still get an education and therefore help get their families out of poverty, since an education will ensure better-paying jobs in the long run. Child labor is not always a matter of child exploitation.
    Name : Musa Nacafov
    Student Number : 20102228
    Department : Tourism & Hotel Management

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  16. Is child labour always wrong.
    Nowadays, 215 million children work full-time throughout the world. These children do not go to school and have no time to play. Also they very often do not receive proper nutrition or care. They live the life of an adult and have their childhood taken away. A vast majority of them work in hazardous environments, are slave, or are involved in drug trafficking and prostitution. The article discusses the case of Jean-Claude Toviave a tennis pro who was accused of bringing four children from Africa and forcing them to work as slave in his Michigan house. He was accused of beating and forcing the children to clean the house. He was physically torturing, beating and starving the kids. His verbal and physical assaults, worked the four victims close to death. Is children slavery or child labour acceptable in our society?
    According to American life-styles, children should be at school and play. In my opinion Children have the right to education. Child labor and child slavery destroys the innocence of the young kids, and it must be stopped. It takes away the life of children to serves to an end. It is taking someone’s life as a mean to an end which is morally wrong. Children should not have their childhood taken away. It is the parent responsibility to ensure that a children access to education, and to ensure the family has a good quality of life. It is not the children duty to meet the needs of the family; it is the parents’ responsibility. The children responsibility is to study in order to purchase a great career and then later on support financially the family needs. Education is therefore an investment for low income families. Very often child labour leads to corruption, child abuse, human trafficking and slavery. I think child slavery is wrong and it is disgusting that Jean-Claude Toviave enslave kids in a society where child abuse is not permitted. It may be right to him according to his tradition to abuse children however, he has to respond to the laws which clearly state that it is wrong to abuse of children. For that specific case he deserves punishment because what he did to the kids is totally wrong.
    However, there are third World nations where the economy is such that families need their children to work to supplement their incomes. Child Labor exists, and in some places makes the difference and helps decrease poverty rate or just helps poor families to survive. But it is a fact that child labor brings corruption, using children to hold down the cost of wages.
    Child labor may have a place in the world economy, as long as it is not hazardous or dead-end work. Child laborers can still get an education and therefore help get their families out of poverty, since an education will ensure better-paying jobs in the long run. Child labor is not always a matter of child exploitation.
    Name : Musa Nacafov
    Student Number : 20102228
    Department : Tourism & Hotel Management

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  17. Why is fair trade so important?
    Fair trade is a social movement whose stated goal is to help producers in developing countries achieve better trading conditions and to promote sustainability. Fair trade is basic on three belief; the producer have power to express unity with customers. The world trade practices that currently exist promote the unequal distribution of wealth between nations. And lastly buying products from producers in developing countries at a fair price is more efficient way of promoting sustainable development than traditional charity and aid.
    Buyers are required to pay a stable fair trade minimum price calculated to cover the costs of sustainable production.
    Buyers are required to pay a fair trade premium to producer organizations for producer organization to make livelihood investments and to improve the situation of local communities
    Increased access to export
    Opportunity for pre-financing
    It very important because it helps with the price of goods and most especially it helps farmer rebuild their lives despite war and outbreaks of violence when commercial buyers pay fair premium, the farmers no longer live in poverty instead they earn sufficiently to provide and protect their families as well as strengthen their communities.
    It also ensures equitable trade practices at every level of the supply chain. This entails a high level of transparency and trace ability in global supply chains.
    Fair trade license fees generate funds and the money is specially designed for social, economic and environmental development projects such as scholarships, school, quality improvement and leadership training and organic certification. And the certified products are free of genetically engineered ingredients and must be produced with limited amounts of pesticides and fertilizer and proper management of waste, water and energy.

    Sebastian Nlebedim
    20133593
    Business Administration

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  18. THE EFFECTS OF BRIBERY AND CORRUPTION IN ECONOMIC GROWTH
    Bribery is a specific offence which concerns the practice of offering something, usually money, to gain an illicit advantage and corruption is an abuse of a position of trust in order to gain an undue advantage. Bribery and corruption are not victimless crimes they undermines economic development and no country is immune from bribery and corruption. Corruption in its many forms (bribery, nepotism, fraud, embezzlement) adversely impacts the economies and societies of affected nations.
    Corruption leads to monopolies or oligopolies in the economy. Where business are owners buy their way to ensure they are the only sole provider of goods or services in the market.it also lead to inefficient allocation of resources.
    Economics that are afflicted by a high level of corruption which involves the misuse of power whether in the form of money or authority, in order to achieve certain goals in illegal, dishonest or unfair ways are not capable of prospering as fully as those with a low level of corruption. Corrupted economics cannot function properly because it prevents the natural laws of the economy from functioning freely.
    Corruption has contributed poorly to the development of a country and it sometimes due to the greediness of people.
    It flourishes where the criminal justices system and governance are weak.it compromises the effectiveness of aid.
    Corruption diverts expenditures away from health, education and maintenance of infrastructure to high ’kickback’ areas such as new construction and deference increase the cost of projects, in the construction industry, project costs typically increase as a result of corruption.
    Corruption causes a lot in the economics of the country whereby the people power are getting richer by eating money met to develop the state, country.

    Faith Ojonugwa Omata
    20133240
    Business Administration

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  19. Is child labour always wrong?
    Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful. Children’s participation in work that does not affect their health and personal development or interfere with their schooling is generally regarded as being something positive. Child labour is often defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development.
    I think our understanding of what be harmful to the physical and mental development of children is heavily influenced by our culture and specifically. In our culture for example in TRNC no one wants their child to work in a job. Families want their children to study only till university. They pay all of their school charges and give them a lot of money to spend anything. So child does not think to work or doing something for himself. After the school they go to restaurants or somewhere to spend their free time and free money from their family. Or all day they play games on computer, playstation and etc rather than working.
    There are regulations also that define appropriate conditions for the employment of children and youth. We have guidelines and laws that dictate things like the age at which youth may legally be employed, the number of hours per day they may work and the kinds of work they may do.
    In some countries motherless children are forcing to work from somebody to get some money to him/her by selling tissue, water or by playing any music instrument and wanting money from people who walks on the road by begging. I think this is so bad.
    Some family has no enough money to spend for their child’s school. They can give some of the school charge for their child so this child should work in a job part time to collect money to pay his/her school if he wants to study. This is a very good experience for him i think for his real life. This is not also a bad think.
    For example i am cypriot turkish and my condition is same as i wrote it upside. My family pay my school charge and also give me some money to spend for something. I can do everthing with that money but i choose to work in my father’s job. After school i am working in my father’s petrol station part time. Everyday i am learning new things and it is very important for me. I get experinced everyday for my future life. Also i do practice of my lessons such as accounting, finance, interaction with people, etc in petrol station.
    I think this type of working children experienced 4 years before the others that are finishing the university. And i think this type of child labor is very good. So child labor is not bad alltime.
    ZEKA SALDAM
    20130323

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  20. FAIRTRADE
    First of all we need to define fair trade if we are going to discuss the importance of fair trade. Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, clarity and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers. It is a movement started in USA in the years of 1940 ‘s and 50’s.
    It is important because it is all about better prices, decent working conditions and fair terms of trade for all kinds of workers. For example . The majority of poorly paid farmers produce commodities like coffee, cotton, olive oil, fruits and hemp, so guaranteed minimum prices are extremely important to these producers. Fairtrade requires compliance with domestic and international labour laws, which include the prohibition of child and forced labour, as well as child trafficking. Fairtrade food and drinks are also certified by independent, third party labeling organizations.
    This is essential because the vast majority of farmers affected by unfair pricing for produce, typically reside in warzones and are often some of the poorest in the world. Many are frequently exploited and essentially stolen from, which keeps such zones unsafe and dangerous for living in. Fairtrade can help farmers rebuild their lives, despite war and cases of violence. When commercial buyers pay fair premiums these farmers no longer live in extreme poverty. Instead, they earn sufficiently to provide and protect their families, as well strengthen their overall communities through finances, decent amount of nutrition and education.
    Nowadays, Fairtrade is a growing movement. Numerous businesses now recognise the importance of greater clarity in terms of their product sourcing, reflecting the increasing awareness among consumers about where their produce is coming from. A growing number of customers for many companies now demand a more ethical approach to the treatment of workers and farmers who traditionally would have been marginalised by large corporations. Fair Trade Certified products alone positively impact the lives of the over one million Fair Trade farmers and their families, who are located in 58 countries. Fair Trade raises the standards of living for these families and offers a comprehensive development of their communities. It offers true change, and not charity. Fairly traded products affect millions and millions of producers providing them with more resources and control over their lives.
    Name:Emir Alptekin
    Student no:20130614

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  21. CHILD LABOUR

    Is child labour wrong? When this question is asked every person who hears it says the words such as “yes”, “obviously”, and “a hundred percent”, but no one looks into the depths of this topic. Child labour is the most inhumane thing anyone can do, however twenty one percent of the child population of the world are trapped in child labour. Everyone knows about child labour, but does anyone know the actual cruelty that happens with these innocent souls? Child labour is not only children working in companies with low wages but its children working in hazardous and fatal conditions, conditions that lead to children falling ill with lethal diseases or most of the time facing death. Not does child labour only effect the physical health of children but it mentally damages a child’s brain. During the time where children should be focusing on school and simple things as how to play with paint, these children are forced by families and poor living conditions to earn for their family. The child is forced to work and think if he or she would be able to provide the next meal on the table. Under the age of 18, every person is considered a child although this is a globally known fact international based companies tend to overlook it, in their eyes they are helping by providing employment in poverty conditioned countries. It is common knowledge that a family going to poverty barely has the means to nourish their children, than please ask them to explain how is a child, who is working several hours a day will be able to nourish itself. This leads to malnourished kid’s dying young. What the saddest part is, although child labour does happen in third world countries, they are done by companies that we as consumers buy the most from. Companies that are multi-billion industries with the highest selling rates in the world are the ones who are hiring these children to work for wages that are illegal in their own home based countries. Now what baffles me is how third world nation governments overlook such a big problem. Yes the economy is bad and having international companies open their factories is going to help it, however that does not mean in any way to have the future generation of your country work and spend their delicate years in slavery. According to the recent statistics Australia produces $16 million worth of tobacco that is distributed worldwide which is produced by children. The cultivation of tobacco is extremely intensive and health sensitive, being an adult we tend to change paths if we see someone smoking imagine little kids having to cultivate it. With the mass millions these companies are making we would think that at least they are paying well to these children, however they are paying below international minimum wage. Facts have shown that one of the five children is not even paid for their services. Overall to answer the question that is child labour always wrong? Yes, child labour in any form or way is always wrong. Children are not meant to work in factories with oil stains on their hands, but instead their hands should be covered in mud due to playing in the rain. Their hands should be covered in ink due to holding pens for too long, and their hands should be held protectively by their parents and the adults of the society rather then pushed in the work force at such a young age..

    Abdul Ahad Shafi
    20146859
    Hotel and Tourism Management

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  22. Leave the phenomenon of child labor negative effects reflected on the society in general and children in particular, and this exploitation is taking many forms, the most important of child labor and servitude in the work of non-qualified physically and psychologically to do, there are many of the international conventions has criminalized in turn, economic exploitation of children.

    The concept of child labor:
    Is an action which puts a heavy burden on the child, and that threatens the safety and health and well-being, work that takes advantage of the weakness of the child and his inability to defend his rights, work that exploits child labor as cheap labor alternative for adult work, work which uses the presence of children does not contribute to their development, Labour, which hampers a child’s education, training and change his life and his future.

    **The causes of child labor:
    – The cultural level of the family: the benefit of education are not known to them.
    – Poverty: Children want the help of their families, the parents of deficit spending on their children.
    – Lack of schools and compulsory education.
    -nqs Knowledge of child labor laws.
    Racism.
    – Colonialism, wars and crises that create an economic burden.
    – The prevailing education system

    **The negative impacts of the devastating child labor :
    There are four key aspects is affected by a child who exploit economically the work being done, namely:
    – Development and physical growth:
    The child in terms of organic consistency and strength, vision and hearing health is affected as a result of wounds and bruises, physical, falling from high places, suffocation from poisonous gases, difficulty breathing, bleeding, etc., etc., influences.
    – Cognitive development:
    Cognitive development is affected by a child who leaves school and go to work, the abilities and scientific development is affected and leads to a decline in his abilities on reading, writing, arithmetic, adding that at least his creativity.
    – Emotional development:
    Emotional development when the baby boomer affected loses self-respect and its association with the prisoners and accepted by others, and that due to its distance from the family and sleep in the workplace and subjected to violence by the employer or by his colleagues.

    **Social and economic impact of child labor :
    Many say that poverty, and children’s participation in economic activity reinforce each other. Poverty and the causes of child labor and weaken chances of social mobility. It also perpetuates poverty, since it reflected the possibility of education that achieve gains for a lifetime. It is assumed that this also applies to any action that affects the health, safety, social and upbringing of the child. From a macroeconomic point of view and the developer to harm the child, the labor perpetuates poverty because it degrades the human capital needed for economic and social development.

    often said ,, that the participation of children in economic activity increases poverty because it increases unemployment and the lack of adult labor. But it is difficult to generalize, because it depends on the work done by children type, with regard to working hack, in the factory, for example, can convert children to adults and will have a negative impact on employment, wages, conditions and other work for adults

    omar Mohamed
    20159413

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  23. “Human trafficking”
    For sure I respect your topics but I know will interest in my topic because it is increasing now a days in our region of inhumanity political world!
    “Mostly middle east citizens understand human trafficking is helpful for people that can’t get visa Easley, and leaves their countries because of unemployment and many other reasons, and try to make and illegal emigration by a small boat, to find a good life in modern countries, under the name of survival . People believe that our political leaders are criminals and the person who help those people to Risking their lives
    are the victims. This is wrong… humans are human beings, not commodities to be bought and sold.”
    For example in last two years we heard a lot on media about this issue, about illegal emigration from poor countries and try to leave their countries illegally, from west Asia and North Africa , to pass the sea by using unsafe small boats to walk for 10 days with their children in Europe to stay as refugees to find a good chance over there, well I support some of them and if I get any chance to have a good passport I will leave because I’m holding a refugee document that will destroy my future to stay without work or go back to my homeland, anyway whatever the issue it is I think we are responsible to change the way of people they think, because at the end illegal things gain nothing for them , just it will build a wealth for those business men who helped them on their ways to arrive and it will help the strong polices to come to their countries and take the benefits.
    More over , this kind of business is unethical and unbelievable, using humans life and put them in dangerous situation, just to increase our bank accounts, and make a wealth for ourselves , it is an selfish business that will destroy the meaning of human beings and it horrible how we are changing the mentality of more than 15,000,000 children, it will build and issue in their minds in the future and it will destroy their personalities, because of a very stupid think! Is leaving and survival to stay in a freedom area or find a new job, if you are a good father or a great mother just think before take a choice to make your children suffers a lot to be in a good situations.
    Emigration is a great idea but it must be legal, safe and make sure about the country you will choose , that it will try to help your child to be in a good situation and under sociable system because your son is the future and the one who will make a change in your real homeland and he/she responsible to help their people in bad situations in their countries and humans in all around the world, because 1 change thousands .
    In conclusion, I believe we are living in one planet , Earth is a great place that God gave it to us, so we are humans and we are responsible to use our brains to think as human beings because we are not in the forest and be act like animals!
    Raja El-Majzoub
    20135297

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  24. unsafe working conditions and how to improve health and safety

    I chooses this topic because it is very rarely in my country, especially for “Carpenter Concrete”.
     Improperly maintained equipment, tools, or machines
     Failure to maintain working warning systems (such as fire alarms or even warning posters)
     Lack of consistent inspections of workplace conditions
     Poorly maintained records of injuries on the job or work-related injuries
    These are some factors of unsafe working conditions. People work to get money and get the power to purchase their needs and wants, so safe conditions is very important topic.
    First, it will give direct confident to the employees to work in an safe area and be free to move their body , if they are working outside such as in build buildings or working inside such as offices. Second, the ethical thing if something happen to the employer, the owner is responsible about their children or their mother and father if worker is the only source for them, making yearly insurance. Health insurance. is very important for the mission of the company that it will give a good image for them locally and it will support their vision if they build a strategy to be globally.
    As an employer, it is your responsibility to maintain a safe and healthy workplace. A safety and health management system, or safety program, can help you focus your efforts at improving your work environment. Whatever you call it, your plan describes what the people in your organization do to prevent injuries and illnesses at your workplace.
    Your organization will have its own unique system, reflecting your way of doing business, the hazards of your work, and how you manage the safety and health of your employees:
    What’s most important is that your system works for your organization. It’s up to you to decide how best to operate a safe and healthy workplace, and to put your plan into practice. This will be great image for your company inside your area and it can build the competitive advantage with other companies .
    Put as much energy into your commitment to safety and health as you put into any other important part of your business. Make sure to include workplace safety and health in your business plan and integrate it into all facets of the business.
    • Write a policy that emphasizes the importance you place on workplace safety and health.
    • Commit the resources (time, money, personnel) needed to protect your employees.
    • Begin meetings with a safety topic.
    • Encourage employee participation in safety and health.
    • Let employees know they will be expected to follow safe work practices if they work for your business. And follow them yourself.
    • Respond to all reports of unsafe or unhealthy conditions or work practices.
    • If injuries or illnesses occur, make it your business to find out why.
    • Go beyond the regulations; address all hazards, whether or not they are covered by laws.
    At the end, your employees are the reason that make your company working and attracting customers. If you are a manager try to safe your employee because he/she is the machine of your income.
    The manager taking decision to safe the employer and the employer is the reason for increase the manager profit to show him the meaning of trust and ethics, so it is vice versa relation.
    Try to build the smile of your employer and build an ethical human sense in his/her working place !

    Mahmoud Hammoush
    20146924

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  25. Is child labour always wrong?

    Well actually it depends on the culture and depends on the country, some countries they think it’s wrong to study and work at the same time, because they think it’s wasting time, some countries they make fun of the guy who’s working and studying at the same time, and some countries think it’s a good experience to work while studying, because you’ll get to learn a lot before you actually start working with a professional job.
    In my opinion it might be a good idea for some one to learn something before growing up and having a real job, because you’ll get to learn how to communicate with customers for example, you’ll learn how to communicate with people in general , it makes life a bit more social. Yes it might distract you from studying, but you’re getting experience back in return, everything has advantages and disadvantages, some people have particular circumstances that they’re facing, maybe financial issues, maybe they have to afford living or afford for the university, and actually it’s nice if a guy/girl taking care of they’re own expenses before even growing up, i’m sure it makes parents proud.
    Actually i never had the chance to work a real job, but actually i want the day to come where i can depend on myself, not depend on my parents anymore. So in my opinion No child labour is not wrong, actually they should help students to find jobs, especially here in Cyprus, it’s hard for a foreigner to find a job because gaining an experience is always a good idea, but in the end it depends on the person if he can handle work and studying at the same time, if the person can handle both then i support it 100%.

    Name: Remy Al Hafez
    Department: Banking & Finance
    Student Number: 20133817

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  26. As world population is increasing day by day, people are hiring for a job increasing too. However, sometimes you can not find the job you are looking for. On the other hand, you have to start working and get your salary to satisfy your wants/needs/expectations.
    In this competitive business life, there can not be a perfect working conditions which will affect your working efficiency. By improving the facilities for your employee such as technological, tools, and hygiene, you can definitely have better work results from your employee. Moreover, in todays’ world, many of the companies are making donations or event according to social responsibility. Also, if you are a socially responsible company around worldwide, your rank can be also good.

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  27. As world population is increasing day by day, people are hiring for a job increasing too. However, sometimes you can not find the job you are looking for. On the other hand, you have to start working and get your salary to satisfy your wants/needs/expectations.
    In this competitive business life, there can not be a perfect working conditions which will affect your working efficiency. By improving the facilities for your employee such as technological, tools, and hygiene, you can definitely have better work results from your employee. Moreover, in todays’ world, many of the companies are making donations or event according to social responsibility. Also, if you are a socially responsible company around worldwide, your rank can be also good.

    Dogan Bullici
    20122070

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  28. Why is fair trade so important?
    Fair trade has become a global movement with over a million participants. This movement has brought argument by political decision makers in the European sector and other international body, fair trade has made mainstream business more aware of its social and enviromental responsibilities, in short fair trade is becoming more successful daily. The main goal is to help and encourage individuals, farmers and producers mostly in developing countries to get a fair trade without being exploited and give them a more standard and suitable working conditions. Before we look at the importance of fair trade I want to give a brief history and its establishment
    Fair trade all started in the United States where ten thousand villages began buying needlework from Puerto Rico in 1946 and SERRV began to trade with poor communities in the south in late 1940s. The first fair trade shop was officially opened in 1958 in the USA.
    In Europe, fair trade dates back to the late 1950s, where Oxfam UK sold crafts that were made by Chinese refugees. In 1964, it created its first fair trade organisation, parallel initiatives were taken into consideration in Holland and in 1967 the organisation fair trade was established.
    During the 1960s and 1970s nongovernmental organisations and socially motivated individuals in many countries in Asia, Africa and latin America perceived the need for fair marketing organisations that would provide assistance and support producers. Southern fair trade organisations were established with created a relationship based on dialogue partnership transparency and respect with the goal of greater equity in international trade. Why fair trade is so important;
    • Fair prices; fair trade tends to encourage fair business between individuals and organisations where there will be no exploiting one party or the other due to monetary issues involved, these help avoid any conflict of interest between them with a mutual agreement.
    • No child labour; fair trade policies and practices has helped reduce and eliminate child labour in countries involved because countries caught that are involved with child labour cannot be involved in trade ties
    • Fair trade supports communities; fair trade organisations, with profit made from trading helps support communities mostly rural areas that are less privileged empower them into cooperatives and improve their negotiating position within the supply chain.
    • Fair trade raises standard of living; supporting communities providing basic amenities I,e medical care, education sector, improved roads more standard equipment and facilities and many more.
    • Benefits small scale producers; small scale farmers are known to be exploited mostly because they don’t have the technical know-how in the big market, this notion has changed over time and has given them improved access to agricultural service such as organic training and premium markets, as a result farmers have incentive to farm better and sell more
    • Fair trade provides access to finance producer support and also expertise in tackling climate change and supporting long term environmental sustainability, they also realise their rights and negotiating power for the terms and conditions involved through trade unions and collective bargaining.
    Atang Agwom
    20134301
    Business admin

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  29. LISTED BELOW ARE THE EFFECTS OF BRIBERY AND CORRUPTION IN ECONOMIC GROWTH;
    1. A slow growing economy.
    2. Low motivation for workers.
    3. Distrust by foreign investors.
    4. Distrust/ division amongst fellow citizens.
    5. Bad image for governmental portfolios and not the individuals occupying the positions.
    6. Mismanagement of nation’s resources.
    7. Corruption affects public finances, business investments as well as standards of living.
    8. Disloyalty by the country’s governmental officials.
    9. Slow pace for country’s development.
    10. Bad legacy for the future of the country.
    11. Disregard for the rule of law

    A SLOW GROWING ECONOMY
    A major effect of bribery and corruption is a slow pace of country’s development. Development in terms of country’s national GDP (Gross domestic product). The GDP tells of the monetary value of an economies final goods and services produced within its boundaries at a specific time period. Every normal economy with a proper management should be progressive economically. A balance between income and expenditure. But bribery and corruption leads to inflation and in some cases recession.
    LOW MOTIVATION FOR WORKERS
    Workers in all spheres of the economy get discouraged whenever results of their inputs aren’t materialized. One reason why employees are always disappointed is the presence of bribery and corruption in the economy especially among top officials in various organizations. Motivation is lost when leaders of various sects in an economy don’t keep to terms with employees. A typical example is late payment of salaries to employees.
    DISTRUST BY FOREIGN INVESTORS
    When an economy has secured a bad name by being a bribery, corruption hub, foreign investors are scared away. No investor wants to make losses, with corruption prevalent in the economy, investors distrust employees and where there isn’t unity or agreement both parties cannot reach a proper agreement.
    DIVISION AMONG CITIZENS
    Bribery and corruption widens the gap between the rich and the poor. Over the years, observations attest to this fact; the rich grow richer meanwhile the poor remain financially stagnant; not making real progress financially. Irresponsible people who carry out this kinds of actions do this in favor of themselves without thinking of others. One effect of this is that fortune, wealth becomes inherent, the individual’s children or relatives stand to benefit from it with no consideration of people outside their family cycle. In the real sense bribery goes a long way to affect even the employees of an organization. BAD IMAGE FOR GOVERNMENTAL PORTFOLIOS
    Due to misconduct by top governmental officials. A bad image has been carved out for even governmental portfolios making many intellectual capable individuals view the whole discipline as a modern evil meanwhile in reality this is not true.
    MISMANAGEMENT OF NATIONAL RESOURCES
    A major effect of corruption and bribery is that it limits one to the present and not to its subsequent positive effects. Many intellectuals have been ignored because of self-centeredness.
    CORRUPTION AFFECTS PUBLIC FINANACES, BUSINESS INVESTMENTS AS WELL AS STANDARDS OF LIVING
    In various organizations finances are looted. This could be extra rewards to be given to employees but along the line it is embezzled. As stated earlier corruption affects the good image of an economy thereby leading to less foreign investors.
    IT LEADS TO CHAOS AND WARS
    Because a few harness the nation’s treasury, the victims of such losses decide to take vengeance. Such decisions lead to arm robbery it could also lead to violence protests. Such chaos also leads to the chase of foreign investors.
    DISLOYALTY BY THE COUNTRY’S GOVERNMENTAL OFFICIALS
    Because the trend by citizens is looting, disloyalty becomes prevalent, there becomes a high level of disloyalty among governmental officials. This leads to poor accountability transparency and a lot of falsehood.
    BAD LEGACY FOR THE FUTURE OF THE COUNTRY.
    Children and younger individuals recognize and admire corrupt individuals and hope to follow their steps as they grow.

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  30. The effects of bribery and corruption in economic growth.
    Student Name: Kursant Tagaev
    Student №: 20123772
    Department: Banking & Finance
    In this my assignment I want to talk about the effects of corruption to economic growth. As you know that the corruption is lack of integrity and honesty (especially susceptibility to bribery); use of official position to benefit in a dishonest way. Corruption has variety of forms such as bribery, misappropriation of goods and services intended for public consumption, influencing in applying laws and regulations for the purpose of personal gain therefore all these are the examples of offenses and crimes. The high level of corruption can be different depending on country, period and department. Corruption reduces the country’s wealth and reduce living standards and it has impact on you even if you do not face with it directly.
    So, corruption:
    I. Interferes to business that is not able to develop in a corrupt system that leads to a reduction in overall wealth of the country
    II. Entails a reduction in the volume of funds that the government has to pay to workers and to spend on the purchase of supplies, books, medicines, computers, etc.
    III. Leads to the fact that the money allocated by the state to provide social services (schools, hospitals, roads, sewage, police, etc.) are not used properly, which degrades the quality of services
    IV. Create the conditions so that people who have money and power could change the laws and regulations of the state organs in their interests
    V. Reduce the confidence of people to government
    The main catalysts of Corruption are as follows:
    I. Economic factor
    II. Politic factor
    III. Legal factor
    Economic Factor
    Determining by the low level of people`s life and very low level of salaries of civil servants. For developing countries where the standard of living is minimal and no one is not sure for future days. The bribery is main source of income among government officials. Government intervention into economy also is the factor that defining the corruption as direct or indirect intervention of government, increasing its role in the country economy, unfortunately increases the extent of corruption. In addition, in countries where the state dominates in affairs of distribution and regulation all financial operations in this case the level of corruption is particularly high.
    Political Factor
    The political factor also is the figure of corruption. In countries where are not democratic reforms, where the voters are not able to express their point of view and especially when the corrupt higher echelons of power, the most serious concern is a growing opportunity to evade responsibility for many corrupt officials. In addition, the situation creates a favorable the climate for the involvement of even more people in a corrupt environment.
    Legal Factor
    Unfortunately, the lack of specificity in the legal infrastructure of the state creates the conditions for corrupt government officials to subjective and often wrong interpretation of the articles of laws and regulations. With the effective functioning of the legal and judicial system capable of ensuring transparency of activities of government departments, there is the possibility of reducing the level of corruption. Otherwise, as already mentioned, the abdication of responsibility allows the creation of a more favorable climate for corruption.

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  31. Name: Nigel T Muza
    Student number: 20156867
    Department: tourism hospitality

    Assignment 5 – Business Ethics and Social Responsibility

     unsafe working conditions and how to improve health and safety

    A health and safety program is a process for managing the prevention of work-related injuries and diseases in the workplace. As a small business owner and employer you have a responsibility to your employees to ensure their health and safety in the workplace.

    Hence am going to discuss on the key steps safe work environment will be the basic components of your health and safety program.
    Create a plan to control workplace hazards
    As an employer, you must identify hazards in your workplace and take steps to eliminate or minimize them. Develop a safety plan. Tell your employees what you will do to ensure their safety and what you expect from them. Make sure your employees have access to a first aid kit. Hazards can include: a cleaner working with heavy duty cleaning products, a mechanic working with large machinery or a warehouse manager stacking heavy boxes.
    Inspect your workplace.
    Regularly check all equipment and tools to ensure that they are well maintained and safe to use. Also check storage areas and review safe work procedures. Are boxes in your storage area stacked in a safe manner? Are your employees instructed how to lift heavy goods without injuring themselves? Do your employees know where the fire exit is and where they should gather if there is a fire?
    Train your employees.
    Proper training is necessary for all employees, especially if there is a risk for potential injury associated with a job. Provide written instructions and safe work procedures so they can check for themselves if they are unsure of a task or have forgotten part of their training. Supervise your employees to ensure that they are using their training to perform their job properly and safely. By not providing the correct training for your employees you are not only endangering the safety of your employees but you will be held liable for the incident which could have serious consequences.
    Investigate incidents
    Even if an incident does not result in a serious injury, conduct an incident investigation to help determine why an incident happened so you can take steps to ensure that it will not recur.
    Talk regularly with your employees.
    Meet regularly with your staff and discuss health and safety issues. Encourage them to share their ideas and thoughts on how to improve safety in the workplace. You might even consider providing first aid training for staff so they are prepared to deal with emergency situations
    Make safety a key part of your business.
    Safety shouldn’t be an after-thought; it’s just as important to a successful business as customer service, inventory control, and financial planning. A commitment to health and safety makes good business sense because it’s the one way to protect your greatest resource your people.

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  32. Timur Galichenko
    20103035
    International Business
    The most important ethical issue in your country
    I will present Ukraine

    Ukrainian Prime Minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk declared the nation to be at war against corruption. It sounds promising, but can they deliver ? Ukraine is currently in the midst of a very challenging time: it is enduring the loss of its territorial integrity, military activities in some parts of the country, and economic instability in the entire country. To solve these problems, and to secure financial support from the West, the administration of Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko is implementing a wide range of reforms, including several anti-corruption initiatives.

    Our 2013 representative study of 625 Ukrainian enterprises showed that corruption seemed not to be a significant problem for most business operations regardless of region, industry, or firm size. Corruption had simply become a part of the system, and businesspeople have learned how to deal with it (Denisova-Schmidt and Huber 20141). Our new representative study of 120 Ukrainian companies, conducted in early 2015 in the western part of Ukraine, shows the new tendency: corruption has become an obstacle for the majority of the companies that participated in the survey. Has the situation changed significantly since 2013, or are CEOs becoming more open in their discussions of the business environment?

    Corrupt versus Informal Practices

    In both surveys, we coded the negatively connoted word “corruption” into the more neutral “informal practices,” to refer to the practical norms CEOs and managers often use to get things done (Shekshnia, Ledeneva and Denisova-Schmidt 2014). In our questionnaires, we asked about the informal practices used within the company, such as whether companies tend to pay salaries to their staff in cash, or if managers receive any benefits from job candidates, or if they use company funds or employees for their personal needs. We also asked about any informal practices that occur in dealing with suppliers and buyers. We talked with companies about their interactions with local and state authorities, with different control agencies, and with tax inspection and the courts. All of these actions are informal practices on the part of the practitioners, but according to Transparency International, they are all forms of corruption The 2015 results show a considerable increase of about one standard deviation in the usage of two informal practices:

    Paying salaries and bonuses to staff in cash without paying taxes or social fees—the average response increased from 2.2 to 3.4 on a scale from 1 to 5; and
    Selecting vendors, contractors or the winners of open tenders on the basis of informal relationships and agreements—the average response increased from 2.3 to 3.3 on a scale from 1 to 5.
    The open questions about the reasons for using such informal practices shed some light on these issues.

    Paying Salaries and Bonuses to Staff in Cash without Paying Taxes or Social Fees

    Small and medium-sized companies would not be able to survive without paying salaries and bonuses to staff in cash and tax-free. In Ukraine, taxes and social fees are very high for a small or medium-sized company. Even many large businesses try to evade high taxes by employing people as independent contractors, which reduces the tax burden considerably.Our respondents indicate that, if they were to pay all the required taxes and fees, about half of their employees’ salaries would be taken away as a result. That demotivates employees and reduces their productivity and morale, so employers try to increase salaries by paying social benefits directly to their staff. Also, having no formal relations with employees reduces the time needed for managing taxes. Hence, tax evasion is seen as a factor in increasing productivity and a socially accepted way of increasing the benefits of employees.

    Selecting Vendors, Contractors or the Winners of Open Tenders on the Basis of Informal Relationships and Agreements

    Our respondents indicate that the practice of using informal relations to select tender winners reduces the time and resources necessary for formal tender arrangements. Several respondents referred to business as a zero-sum game, mentioning that if one does not use informal connections, then one’s competitors would do that to win. Such a view correlates with the view of Neutze and Karatnycky (2007) on the problem of business corruption in Ukraine. They indicate a mixed picture of corruption practices in the private sector. While corruption remains a major mechanism by which companies evade taxes, resolve complicated bureaucratic procedures and obtain market access under favorable or even monopolistic conditions, many big companies strive for transparency in order to get access to the international capital market. At the same time, small and medium-sized enterprises strive for a decrease in negative, blat-related relationships in order to have equal access to corruption mechanisms on the market.
    Outlook

    The survey yielded some very interesting results. On the one hand, businesses are still using or even increasing their usage of certain corrupt practices; on the other hand, they indicate a significantly more negative attitude to corruption as the usual way of doing business in Ukraine. The number of businesses that view corruption as an obstacle for their development has almost doubled since 2013, from 23% to 43%. This brings hope that continuing systemic changes in Ukraine, the reformation of the Ukrainian economy and constant anti-corruption measures will push the Ukrainian business community from their current “bad” long-term equilibrium of rent-seeking behavior to a “good,” corruption-free equilibrium of a win-win business game.

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  33. CHILD LABOUR:
    The thought of child labor makes me cringe.
    I envision children spending hours every day in repetitive (and sometimes dangerous) work – forced to earn an income to help the family survive, or, more horrifically, because they have no family and are working for their own survival or are the “property” of a ruthless “employer.”

    The working conditions for many child laborers are entirely unsatisfactory and even inhumane.

    I’m shocked by the images I occasionally see on news reports when a factory collapses in Bangladesh or a fire rips through a garment factory in Pakistan. How is it possible for such conditions to exist in the 21st century?

    Child labor becomes the catch phrase for that which I despise, but is the labor of children always bad?
    “Children’s or adolescents’ participation in work that does not affect their health and personal development or interfere with their schooling is generally regarded as being something positive,” ILO said. “The term ‘child labour’ is often defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development.”
    In western countries, there are regulations that define appropriate conditions for the employment of children and youth.
    the challenge is to find the elusive happy medium. We should advocate against the exploitation of children – by all means – but we should also advocate against conditions by which we mistakenly think we can keep our kids safe by protecting them from responsibility.

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  34. A health and safety program is a process for managing the prevention of work-related injuries and diseases in the workplace. As a small business owner and employer you have a responsibility to your employees to ensure their health and safety in the workplace.
    To triumph over the demanding situations of unethical behaviour, implement ethical standards among the people as a way of lifestyles in enterprise and government transactions, the following hints are put forward: First, the Nigerian government need to inculcate into its citizens, the want to imbibe PES and behaviour as a manner of life both in public and personal zone of the country‟s economy. this will be carried out through public enlightenment marketing campaign approximately the ills of unethical behavior as a method of reaching personal or collective dreams of the united states of America. 2nd, the authorities need to find the need to impose stiffer penalty on the ones determined to be worried in an unethical behavior, irrespective of their role or reputation within the US , which could function deterrent to others. A law need to be put in place so one can permit regulation enforcement retailers to dig deep into humans‟s sources of wealth and if observed to be received illegally such wealth must be forfeited to the authorities. third, the law on freedom of statistics surpassed these days with the aid of the Nigerian country wide assembly need to be bolstered to make it obligatory for all authorities officers to disclose their property openly instead of the present day machine wherein the Code of behavior Bureau maintains such information on property declared through public officers secret. On this manner, individuals who may additionally have information about underneath-declared or undisclosed assets of public officers can volunteer such information to law enforcement marketers for verification and prosecution if discovered to be accurate.
    In the end, the legal guidelines organizing the various ethical standards regulatory organizations in Nigeria need to be reviewed to make these structures clearly unbiased of the government both in terms of appointments, merchandising or funding to avoid compromise. once the headship of these ethical standards regulatory businesses have the backing of the law that they can’t be removed from workplace at will with the aid of the authorities of the day, they may be much more likely to be critical inside the combat against unethical behavior each in enterprise and in authorities.

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